In the Kindergarten year, I mainly concentrated on visual and physical aspects of the sounds. We covered the first 26 phonograms which are a to z. I made pictures such as the one below to engage them in the visual aspect of the letter.
You see the letter "S" in the shape of the swan. The key/trigger words for this phonogram were swan and was since the phonogram s has two sounds "s" and "z." For the letter "s" we would hiss like a snake. I got most of my ideas for physical movements from the DVD Leappad Letter Factory. I used this book to get some ideas for pictures:
This was a great book for Kindergarten and just looking at and learning the letters. We spent a lot of time playing with the sounds.
In second grade, we speed up the process doing sometimes up to 4 or 5 letters a week but when we get to the multi-letter phonograms we slow those down to 1 a week. We again use the pictures, physical movements, sounds, key words but this time we use Aesop's Fables. I also spend time dictating words letter sound by letter sound for the child to write down and decode. It is around this time after the 7-year change and the child's 8th birthday that I have found everything clicks and the child is ready to read.